Bible Prophecy and History - The Bible
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|Books and Authors||Canon||Apocrypha||Deuterocanonical||Pseudodepigrapha||Changes|
|Old Testament||New Testament||Rejected Books||Sources of Scripture|
|The Torah||Mishna||Gemara||Talmud||Targum||Name of God|
|Early Translations||Septuagint||Latin Vulgate||Masoretic Text||Textus Receptus||Majority Text|
||Dead Sea Scroll||Archaeology|
|Codex Vaticanus||Codex Sinaiticus||Alterations||Commandments||Westcott & Hort||Critical Text|
|Bible Reading Plan||Bible Study Plan||Church History||Bible Maps|
|Dear God. Help me to see the Bible clearly. If it is your Word, help me to trust that you have taken care of what is essential, so that I can trust in your Word. Thank you.|
Inspiration is the supernatural influence on human writers by which they communicated or recorded what God wanted us to know. Since Early Christians were just people who believed in the Jewish Faith but also believed that Jesus Christ was the Messiah, they adopted the scriptures from Judaism and accepted the Scriptures as authoritative. Christians generally believed that the Bible contained the word of God as communicated by his Spirit � first through the patriarchs and prophets and then through the apostles. The writers of the New Testament books appealed to the authority of the Hebrew Scriptures to support their claims concerning Jesus Christ.
Inspiration could imply one of two things:
Most of the Bible was written by a human being through inspiration or just for recording history.
The only Words God wrote are these:
The only words God spoke first hand are these:
The rest of inspired scripture that was not directly written or spoken by God and recorded are either true history or people moved to write about their relationship with God. How He has led and encouraged them. Others are just written in praise to God. While others are letters to individuals or churches preserved as authentic teachings because they were written by those who knew Jesus directly.
Books And Authors Of The Bible
Classifications Of The Books
|Torah Shebiksav||5||Written Torah||Genesis - Deuteronomy|
|Nevi'im (Prophets)||7 (9)||Prophets||Joshua, Judges, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, Samuel, Kings|
|1 (12)||Trey Asar (The Twelve) minor Prophets||Hosea - Malachi|
|Kesuvim (Writings)||11 (13)||Writings||The other books|
|Mishna or Torah Sheb'al Peh||1||Oral Torah||Mishna|
|Gemara||1||Detailed explanations of the Mishna||Gemara|
|Gospel||4||Good News. The life of Jesus by his disciples||Matthew, Mark, Luke, John|
|History||1||History after the death of Christ||Gospels + Acts|
|Letters||21||Letters (Epistles) Written to churches or individuals. Used for doctrine.||Romans - Jude|
|False Old Testament writings not recognized by either the Hebrew or Protestant Canon, but by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches|
|False New Testament writings not recognized in the Canon of any division of the church|
Books Of The Bible
|Book||Author||Hebrew Canon||Protestant Canon||Catholic/Orthodox Canon||Contents|
|Genesis||Moses 1500 B.C.||B'reishis||Genesis||Genesis||Creation to Joseph a period of 2000 years|
|Exodus||Moses||Shemot||Exodus||Exodus||Escape to Egypt and the Law on Mt. Sinai|
|Numbers||Moses||Bamidbar||Numbers||Numbers||Census and Sinai-Moab|
|Deuteronomy||Moses||Devarim||Deuteronomy||Deuteronomy||Repeats Laws. Journey up to Canaan|
|Major Prophets||Nevi'im||Major Prophets|
|Joshua||Joshua||Yehoshua||Joshua||Joshua||In the promised land|
|Judges||Samuel||Shoftim||Judges||Judges||350 years in the promised land|
|1 Samuel||Samuel+||Shmuel||1 Samuel||1 Kings||King Saul|
|2 Samuel||Samuel+||2 Samuel||2 Kings||King David|
|1 Kings||Compilation||Melachim||1 Kings||3 Kings||400 year reign of Kings, Elijah|
|2 Kings||Compilation||2 Kings||4 Kings||The Kings|
|Jeremiah||Jeremiah||Yirmiyahu||Jeremiah||Jeremiah||The Babylonian captivity|
|Ezekiel||Ezekiel||Yechezkel||Ezekiel||Ezekiel||Before and after the fall of Jerusalem|
|Isaiah||Isaiah||Yeshayahu||Isaiah||Isaiah||Messianic prophecies and the coming destruction|
|Lesser Prophets||Trey Asar||Minor Prophets|
|Hosea||Hosea||Hoshaia||Hosea||The Prophecy of Osee||God's great love for an unfaithful people|
|Joel||Joel||Yoel||Joel||Joel||A call for reformation|
|Amos||Amos||Amos||Amos||Amos||Repentance for people living in luxury|
|Obadiah||Obadiah||Hoshaia||Obadiah||Obadiah||Destruction of Edom for their hostility to Israel|
|Jonah||Jonah||Yonah||Jonah||Jonah||Warning to Nineveh|
|Micah||Micah||Michah||Micah||Micah||Coming Babylonian captivity|
|Nahum||Nahum||Nachum||Nahum||Nahum||Downfall of Assyria in 612 B.C.|
|Habakkuk||Habakkuk||Chabakuk||Habakkuk||Habakkuk||The Just shall live by Faith.|
|Zephaniah||Zephaniah||Tzefaniah||Zephaniah||Zephaniah||Judgments to Israel and other nations for their sins|
|Haggai||Haggai||Chaggai||Haggai||Haggai||Rebuild the temple and to bring comfort|
|Zechariah||Zechariah||Zechariah||Zechariah||Zechariah||After the Babylonian captivity|
|Malachi||Malachi||Malachi||Malachi||Malachi||Spiritual decline of the Jews|
|Psalms||David and others||Tehillim||Psalms||Psalms||Praise, prayers and petitions|
|Proverbs||Solomon and others||Mishlei||Proverbs||Proverbs||Wise sayings of Solomon|
|Job||*Moses||Iyov||Job||Job||The suffering of the good|
|Song of Songs||Solomon and other||Shir HaShirim||Song of Solomon||Solomon's Canticle of Canticles||A love poem|
|Ruth||Samuel||Rus||Ruth||Ruth||Lineage of the family of David|
|Lamentations||Jeremiah||Eichah||Lamentations||Lamentations||The destruction by Babylon|
|Ecclesiastes||Solomon||Koheles||Eccelesiastes||Eccelesiastes||Vanity of earthly things|
|Esther||Unknown||Esther||Esther||Esther||Jewish queen of Persia who saved her people from destruction|
|Daniel||Daniel||Daniel||Daniel||Daniel||End time prophecies during the Babylonian captivity|
|Ezra||Ezra||Ezra & Nechemiah||Ezra||The First Book of Esdras||After the captivity. Rebuilding of the temple|
|Nehemiah||Ezra||Nehemiah||The Second Book of Esdras||After the captivity. Rebuilding of the temple|
|1 Chronicles||*Ezra||Divrei HaYomim||1 Chronicles||1 Chronicles||Kings of Israel and Judah|
|2 Chronicles||*Ezra||2 Chronicles||2 Chronicles||Kings of Israel and Judah|
|Gospel and History|
|Matthew||Matthew||None||Matthew||Matthew||Life of Christ - Gallilean ministry|
|John||John||John||John||Life of Christ - Judean ministry|
|Acts of the Apostles||Luke 31-63 A.D.||Acts||Acts||History after crucifixion and spread to the gentiles|
|Romans 57-58 A.D.||Paul||None||Romans||Romans||Grace, righteousness by faith|
|1 Corinthians||Paul 57 A.D.||1 Corinthians||1 Corinthians||Letter to church at Corinth against immorality|
|2 Corinthians||Paul||2 Corinthians||2 Corinthians||Letter to church at Corinth to help the poor and to repent|
|Galatians||Paul 45 A.D.||Galatians||Galatians||Righteousness by Faith|
|Ephesians||Paul 62 A.D.||Ephesians||Ephesians||Written while in prison for unity|
|Philippians||Paul||Philippians||Philippians||Paul's first imprisonment|
|Colossians||Paul||Colossians||Colossians||Written in prison in Rome to combat legalism|
|1 Thessalonians||Paul||1 Thessalonians||1 Thessalonians||Resurrection and the Second Coming|
|2 Thessalonians||Paul||2 Thessalonians||2 Thessalonians||Prophecies|
|1 Timothy||Paul||1 Timothy||1 Timothy||Duties of Ministers.|
|2 Timothy||Paul||2 Timothy||2 Timothy||Duties of Ministers.|
|Titus||Paul||Titus||Titus||Duties of Ministers. Letter to Titus a gentile minister on the Isle of Crete|
|Philemon||Paul||Philemon||Philemon||While in prison. Letter about the slave Onesimus|
|Hebrews||*Paul||Hebrews||Hebrews||Christ's ministry on Earth|
|James||James||James||James||The brother of Jesus. Works not words. Guide to Christian conduct.|
|1 Peter||Peter||1 Peter||1 Peter||Faithful in persecution|
|2 Peter||Peter||2 Peter||2 Peter||Faithful in persecution|
|1 John||John 90-95 A.D.||1 John||1 John||To combat gnosticism|
|2 John||2 John||2 John||Love is keeping the commandments|
|3 John||3 John||3 John||Letter to Gaius about schismatic work of Diotrephenes|
|Jude||Jude||Jude||Jude||The brother of Jesus. The dangers of apostasy|
|Revelation||John||None||Revelation||Revelation||Prophecy of the last days|
|Tobit||Unknown||Not recognized||The Book of Tobias||Sorcery|
|Additions to the Book of Esther||Unknown||Additions to the Book of Esther||Unknown|
|Wisdom of Solomon||Unknown||The Book of Wisdom||Unknown|
|Ecclesiasticus||Unknown||Ecclesiasticus||The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach|
|Letter of Jeremiah||Unknown||Letter of Jeremiah||Unknown|
|Prayer of Azariah||Unknown||Prayer of Azariah||*Daniel The Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Young Men|
|Susanna||Unknown||Susanna||*Included in Daniel|
|Bel and the Dragon||Unknown||Bel and the Dragon||*Included in Daniel|
|The Prayer of Manasseh||Unknown||The Prayer of Manasseh||Unknown|
|The First Book of the Maccabees||Unknown||Recognized as history||The First Book of the Maccabees|| History of the Jews fight against attempts to Hellenize their culture and religion. |
Prayers for the dead
|The Second Book of the Maccabees||Unknown||The Second Book of the Maccabees|
|The First Book of Esdras||Unknown||Not recognized||The First Book of Esdras||Eastern Orthodox canon only|
|The Second Book of Esdras||Unknown||The Second Book of Esdras||Eastern Orthodox canon only|
The Protestant Old Testament books of Ezra and Nehemiah are known to Roman Catholics as, respectively, the first and second books of Esdras.
The two Apocrypha books of Esdras constitute an entirely separate entity, usually called together Third Esdras by Roman Catholics. This latter two book Esdras is not considered part of the Old Testament by either Protestants or Roman Catholics. Eastern Orthodox churches hold all the books, including Third Esdras, to be canonical, or part of the Old Testament.
The Prayer of Manasseh was included only in the appendix to the Latin Vulgate Bible.
The Christian and Jewish Old Testament are assembled in a different order.
Canon - How The Books Were Chosen
The canon is simply the recognized body of work by a branch of the Church to determine which writings should, or should not be included in the Bible as scripture. Because other strange works were creeping in over time. It became necessary for each group (Jewish and Christian) to meet and state for an historical record, the source of all their books and writings. Therefore, there is an official Hebrew, Protestant, Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Canon. The Christian Bible is divided into two sections.
Each branch of the church, Jewish and Christian made an official list of the writings that would be included in their sacred texts.
The Books Of Judaism
The Name Of God
The term HaShem literally means "The Name" is used by Jews to refer to God. Since Jewish tradition since thetime of the Talmud forbids the pronunciation of God's Name, a substitute is used for the actual name of God. The prohibition is based upon the requirement to fear God and to "fear His name"
In Deuteronomy 6: 13, it states " HaShem your God you shall fear..."
In Deuteronomy 28: 58, "...to fear this great and honored Name of HaShem your God."
This is similar to the prohibition of referring to your parents by their names. The most holy of God's name is the Tetragrammaton (YHWH) which was only pronounced in the Holy Temple during the Temple service. It is God's "personal" name. The prohibition extends to other names such as "Adonoy" which means "My Master" It was also as a substitute for the Tetragrammaton which was not to be pronounced during ordinary speech. Therefore, out of respect for God's holy Name, the term HaShem, which means "The Name" is used in ordinary speech.
Before the invention of the printing press, manuscripts were copied by hand and therefore were rare. No manuscripts exists today from the original writers. We have many generations of copies of copies, sometimes in fragments. There are :
Sources. Basically, these are the sources of the scriptures.
"My faith is still wavering. I cannot determine how much we must believe; how much, in fact, is necessarily required of a member of the Church." Westcott: 23 December 1846 (Life, Vol.I, p.46).Westcott was ordained a priest in the Church of England on 21 December 1851 and Hort in February 1856. In January - March 1853, they agreed on a plan to make a joint revision of the Greek New Testament. They concocted their method of "textual criticism" to dislodge the Universal Text of the Authorized King James Version and its Greek text from is place of high regard and replace it with Catholic local manuscripts from "newly found" texts and began to dismantle the Bible.
"But the book which has most engaged me is Darwin. Whatever may be thought of it, it is a book that one is proud to be contemporary with. I must work out and examine the argument in more detail, but at present my feeling is strong that the theory is unanswerable." Hort, 3 April 1860: (Life, Vol.I, p.416).
"No one now, I suppose, holds that the first three chapters of Genesis, for example, give a literal history - I could never understand how any one reading them with open eyes could think they did - yet they disclose to us a Gospel. So it is probably elsewhere." Westcott, 4 March 1890:
These "Older manuscripts" miraculously found on Mount Sinai and in garbage cans were the counterfeit. The New International Version (NIV) is the worst.
|And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book. (Revelation 22: 19)|
|King James Version||Critical Text Translators Changes And Deletions Isslustrated On The KJV|
|Demoting Jesus Christ||(No Christ) Deleting the word "Christ" or removing His authority and power|
Thou art |
this is indeed
And we believe and are sure that thou art
Believe on the Lord Jesus
For I am not ashamed of the gospel
If any man love not the Lord
The God and Father of our Lord Jesus
the covenant, that was confirmed before of God
and if a son, then an heir of God
from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things
For this cause I bow my knees unto the Father
peace, from God our Father and
we may present every man perfect in Christ
Are not even ye in the presence of our Lord Jesus
Now God himself and our Father, and our Lord Jesus
at the coming of our Lord Jesus
that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus
(I speak the truth in
Apostle and High Priest of our profession,
And every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus
which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus
But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus
|Jesus Is Not LORD||The LORD is not to be believed or obeyed|
Children, obey your parents |
said with tears,
And he said unto Jesus,
appeared to him in the wilderness of mount Sinai an angel
the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of
who hath reconciled us to himself by
and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the |
The first man is of the earth, earthy: the second man is
I bear in my body the marks of the
before God, and the
peace, from God the Father and
I will recompense,
And he said, Who art thou, Lord? |
| That the communication of thy faith may become effectual by the acknowledging of every good thing which is in you in Christ |
And, behold, they cried out, saying, What have we to do with thee,
Then charged he his disciples that they should tell no man that he was
|Jesus Is Not God||The idea of God or Belief In Jesus is rejected|
And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: |
But when it pleased
Mark 9:42 And whosoever shall offend one of these little ones that believe
John 6:47 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth
|Paternity Of Jesus - NOT from God, NOT GOD'S Son. Not incarnated. Not Pre-Existing.|
And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only |
because that God sent his only
And knew her not till she had brought forth her
Brethren, I write no new commandment unto you, but an old commandment which ye had |
He it is, who coming after me is
|No Blood Redemption||The death and blood of Jesus Christ is meaningless to many modern theologians|
In whom we have redemption |
|And hath made of one |
|No Sacrifice/ Substitute||The concept of redemption and atonement has no meaning|
For even Christ our passover is sacrificed |
For ye are bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body,
But if any man say unto you, This is offered in sacrifice unto idols, eat not for his sake that shewed it, and for conscience sake:
And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said,
For we are members of his body,
Let no man despise thy youth; but be thou an example of the believers, in word, in conversation, in charity, |
1 Peter 1:22 Seeing ye have purified your souls in obeying the truth
1 Peter 4:1 Forasmuch then as Christ hath suffered
1 Peter 4:14 If ye be reproached for the name of Christ, happy are ye; for the spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you:
1 Peter 5:10-11 But the God of all grace, who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ
Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had |
Thou madest him a little lower than the angels; thou crownedst him with glory and honour, and didst
For those priests were made without an oath; but this with an oath by him that said unto him, The Lord sware and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever
|Papal Supremacy? Is there no God and only the evolution of man? Is he not equal to the brethren?|
|No Wise or Good God||If only one is good and it is NOT God or Jesus or there is no God then who is good?|
To the only |
Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only
And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one,
Which Humans Are Not Equals? Not Brethren?
|The Lord's Prayer||Fits any authorative human father like the Pope|
Who is "our father" who is not in heaven, who we priase, who has a kingdom on earth to come? Whose will must be done? Who will not deliver us from.
And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, Our Father
|No Creator||Jesus is not the Christ and Jesus is not the Creator because Genesis 1 is an impossible myth|
Defraud ye not one the other, except it be with consent for a time, that ye may give yourselves to
|No Sin. No Truth||No Repentance. We have no need for repentance because we are not evil or lost or need to change|
In whom also ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of |
For which things' sake the wrath of God cometh
Matthew 9:13 But go ye and learn what that meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice: for I am not come to call the righteous, but sinners |
Mark 2:17 When Jesus heard it, he saith unto them, They that are whole have no need of the physician, but they that are sick: I came not to call the righteous, but sinners
Mark 6:11 And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear you, when ye depart thence, shake off the dust under your feet for a testimony against them.
O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, |
Nevertheless, whereto we have already attained, let us walk by the same rule, let us mind
|No Sin. No Conviction||Only Self-Righteousness (NIV, NASB and NWT)|
A good man out of the good treasure
|No Punishment||No fear. No damnation. No need to listen, or pray. Tradition is OK|
These are wells without water, clouds that are carried with a tempest; to whom the mist of darkness is reserved |
That whosoever believeth in him
Romans 1:29 Being filled with all unrighteousness, |
Romans 9:28 For he will finish the work, and cut it short
Romans 10:15 ... How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel
Romans 11:6 And if by grace, then is it no more of works: otherwise grace is no more grace.
Romans 13:9 ... Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal,
Romans 14:21 It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor any thing whereby thy brother stumbleth,
Romans 8:1 There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, |
Romans 15:29 And I am sure that, when I come unto you, I shall come in the fulness of the blessing
Mark 7:8 For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, |
Mark 9:49 For every one shall be salted with fire,
Mark 13:33 Take ye heed, watch |
Then Jesus beholding him loved him, and said unto him, One thing thou lackest: go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, |
|Removing Prophecy||There is no such thing a prophecy or predicting the future|
And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: |
But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation,
And when the people were gathered thick together, he began to say, This is an evil generation: they seek a sign; and there shall no sign be given it, but the sign of Jonas
And when they had blindfolded him,
that of the fruit of his loins,
Mark 14:68 But he denied, saying, I know not, neither understand I what thou sayest. And he went out into the porch;
|No Resurrection. No Miracles||Jesus was not resurrected and He is not come in the body (incarnation)|
|Mark 16 9-20 Deleted. NIV says "earlier manuscripts" do not contain it.
But when Herod heard thereof, he said, It is John, whom I beheaded:
And he came and took her by the hand, and lifted her up; and |
And have hope toward God, which they themselves also allow, that there shall be a resurrection
In these lay a great multitude of impotent folk, of blind, halt, withered,
Then they took away the stone from the place
And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city
Through faith also Sara herself received strength to conceive seed,
And when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven, and consume them,
|No Heaven||It does not exist. The kingdom is on earth|
Now after that John was put in prison, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel |
And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil:
But seek ye first the kingdom
Watch therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour
And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man
A little while, and ye shall not see me: and again, a little while, and ye shall see me,
While I was with them
And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them,
For ye had compassion of me in my bonds, and took joyfully the spoiling of your goods, knowing in yourselves that ye have
|No Second Coming||It will not happen. The kingdom is on earth|
Revelation 1:8 I am Alpha and Omega, |
Revelation 1:11 Saying,
Revelation 2:13 I know
Revelation 5:14 And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four and twenty elders fell down and worshipped
Revelation 6:1 And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, and I heard, as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four beasts saying, Come
Revelation 11:17 Saying, We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast,
Revelation 12:12 Therefore rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them. Woe to the
Revelation 14:5 And in their mouth was found no guile: for they are without fault
Revelation 16:17 And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came a great voice out of the temple of
Revelation 20:9 And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from
Revelation 21:24 And the nations
|Three Witnesses||God's legal witnessses|
| These things have I written unto you that believe on the name of the Son of God; that ye may know that ye have eternal life, |
|Miscellaneous||Other deleted texts|
Perverse disputings of men of corrupt minds, and destitute of the truth, supposing that gain is godliness: |
Matthew 15:8 This people
Matthew 16:3 And in the morning, It will be foul weather to day: for the sky is red and lowring.
Whereunto I am appointed a preacher, and an apostle, and a teacher
Whom I have sent again: thou therefore
Matthew 5:44 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, |
Matthew 19:9 And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery:
Matthew 20:7 They say unto him, Because no man hath hired us. He saith unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard;
Matthew 20:16 So the last shall be first, and the first last:
Matthew 20:22 But Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of,
Mark 7:8 For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, |
Mark 9:49 For every one shall be salted with fire,
Luke 1:28 And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: |
Luke 21:4 For all these have of their abundance
Luke 23:38 And a superscription also was written over him in
Luke 4:4 And Jesus answered him, saying, It is written, That man shall not live by bread alone, |
Luke 4:8 And Jesus answered and said unto him,
Acts 7:37 This is that Moses, which said unto the children of Israel, A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; |
Acts 10:6 He lodgeth with one Simon a tanner, whose house is by the sea side:
Acts 20:25 And now, behold, I know that ye all, among whom I have gone preaching the kingdom
Acts 23:9 And there arose a great cry: and the scribes that were of the Pharisees' part arose, and strove, saying, We find no evil in this man: but if a spirit or an angel hath spoken to him,
Acts 24:6-8 Who also hath gone about to profane the temple: whom we took,
Acts 28:16 And when we came to Rome,
|Bible Text||Significant teaching||Problem|
|Missing Text or Old Manuscript Problems|
|Daniel||None||Dead sea scrolls showed punctuation differences and few spelling variations, but no doctrinal differences|
|Daniel 9: 1||None||The Greek Septuagint has these events happening in the third year not the first. And this does not reference prophecy only history.|
|Revelation 17: 4||None, error was corrected||Erasmus translated incorrectly|
|Revelation 22: 16 - 21||None||Erasmus - last 6 verses do not exist in the Greek|
|Matthew 12: 24, 27||None||KJV - problems with the Textus Receptus. After fake manuscripts were spread by the church|
|John 8: 21||None|
|John 10: 16||None|
|1 Corinthians 14: 10||None|
|1 Corinthians 16: 1||None|
|Mark 8: 14||None||KJV - words found in italics are missing from their primary text|
|Mark 9: 42||None|
|John 8: 6||None|
|Acts 1: 4||None|
|I John 3: 16||None|
|Matthew 22: 28||None||Unknown|
|Matthew 23: 25||None||Unknown|
|Matthew 27: 52||People resurrected at the crucifixion||Unknown|
|Matthew 27: 56||None||Does not appear in older manuscripts|
|Matthew 28: 3, 4, 19, 20||The great commission||Unknown|
|Mark 7: 18, 19, 26||None||Unknown|
|Mark 10: 1||None||Unknown|
|Mark 12: 22||None||Unknown|
|Mark 15: 46||None||Unknown|
|Mark 16: 9-20||Jesus appears to some after the resurrection. Tongues as a sign. Picking up deadly snakes||Does not appear in "older manuscripts" says NIV|
|Luke 1: 16, 61||None||Unknown|
|Luke 2: 43||None||Unknown|
|Luke 9: 1, 15||None||Unknown|
|Luke 11: 49||None||Unknown|
|John 1: 28||None||Unknown|
|John 10: 8||None||Unknown|
|John 13: 20||None||Unknown|
|John 20: 14||Mary at the tomb||Does not appear in "older manuscripts"|
|John 7: 53 - 8: 11||The story of the adulterous woman||Does not appear in "older manuscripts"|
|Catholic Cathecism||Commandments||Changes to the Ten Commandments|
|Catholic Bible||Purgatory, the dead, false writings||Included the apocrypha in the 1400's - books that the early church and the Jewish canon condemned|
|Jehovah's Witness Bible||Deity of Christ||Adds the name of God where it is not found and changes the text concerning Christ|
|NIV Version||Deity of Christ||Translator's decision|
|NASB Version||Deity of Christ||Translator's decision|
Determining The Best Translation
With so many fragments and sources, scholars had to develop methods to discern which was the most original texts, especially when differences occurred.
|Translation||Type /Source||Year Printed||Comments or Revisions|
|Coverdale||Formal||1535||First complete English Bible|
|The Great Bible||Formal||1540||None|
|The Geneva Bible||Formal||1560||First English Bible to divide chapters into verses|
|The Bishop's Bible||Formal||1568||None|
|Douay-Rheims||Formal||1609||Catholic English Bible from the Latin Vulgate|
|Authorized Version||Textus |
|1611||Also known as the King James Version (AV)|
|King James Version||1611||(KJV) Also known as the Authorized Version (AV)|
|1885||The Revised Version|
|1901||American Standard Version|
|-||1982||The New King James Version (NKJV)|
|Revised Standard Version||Unknown||1952||The Revised Standard Version (RSV)|
|The Modern Language Bible||Unknown||1945||(MLB)|
|The New English Bible||Formal||1961||(NEB)|
|The Revised English Bible||Dynamic||1989||Revision of the NEB|
|The Good News Bible |
Today's English Version
|The New Geneva Study Bible||Formal||19??||None|
|The New International Version||UBS Greek |
|1978||(NIV) Used many Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek sources ("Critical Text")|
|The New International Reader's Version||Paraphrase||1996||(NIrV) simplified 3rd grade level|
|The New American Standard Bible||Formal||1971||(NASB)|
|The New American Bible||Vulgate||Unknown||Catholic Bible with Apocrypha|
|The Living Bible||Paraphrase||1971||Paraphrase of KJV|
|The New World Translation||Semi - Formal||1950-61||The Jehovah's Witnesses Bible|
All translations have some uses. But to study doctrine, a formal translation should be used. In addition to the different translations, some Bibles use internal notes for a variety of purposes.
Honest translations will give you alternative readings that are just as legitimate as the chosen text. However, some translators change words to support their doctrinal views, this is not acceptable. Others add commentary or references to support a view. As long as the reader can separate legitimate alternative readings from the comments which are a man's viewpoint then this is acceptable.
There are several types of alterations made to the Bible, and this understanding could affect your understanding of what could have happened to the writings. Some alterations were useful. They usually did not change the meaning of the text. Some alterations might have been accidental because the Bible was manually copied. Other alterations were deliberate attempts to change the meaning:
The following are examples of changes. Some of these are direct changes to the Bible, others are changes to material represented as authoritative and used for Bible study.
|Hebrew and Protestant||Catholic Catheism|
|Number||Text (Exodus 20)||Number||Text||Actions|
|1||You shall have no other gods before Me (Verse 3)||1||You shall have no other gods before Me||Praying to Mary and saints|
|2||You shall not make for yourself any idols or any likeness of what is in Heaven above or earth beneath or in the water under the earth. You shall not worship them or serve them. (Verse 4 - 6)||Deleted||Image worship|
|3||You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain, the Lord will not leave him unpunished who takes his name in vain. (verse 7)||2||You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain||Priest confessions|
|4||Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God; in it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter, your male or your female servant, your cattle or your sojourner who stays with you. For in six days the Lord made the Heavens and the Earth and the Sea and all that is in them and rested the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the seventh day and made it holy (Verse 8 -11)||3
|Remember to keep holy the Lord's day.||Sabbath changed from Saturday to Sunday|
|5||Honor your Father and your Mother, that your days may be prolonged in the land which the Lord your God gives you. (Verse 12)||4||Honor your Father and your Mother||Infallible pope. The holy father|
|6||You shall not murder (Verse 13)||5||You shall not murder||Persecute heretics|
|7||You shall not commit adultery (Verse 14)||6||You shall not commit adultery||Church and State union|
|8||You shall not steal (Verse 15)||7||You shall not steal||Sits on the throne of God as god|
|9||You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor (Verse 16)||8||You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor||Tradition in place of the Word of God - the true witness. Claims to be infallible.|
|10||You shall not covet your neighbor's house you shall not covet your neighbor's wife or his male servant, or his female servant, or his ox, or his donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor. (Verse 17)||9||You shall not covet your neighbor's house||Covets the authority and duties of God. God on Earth, holder of the triple crown with keys to heaven earth and purgatory.|
|10||You shall not covet your neighbor's wife|
Summary Of Changes
Since no original text exists and since we have thousands of fragments and since the Bible has been hand copied for thousands of years, one would expect that errors would creep in. The best evidence shows that the Hebrew scholars took the very greatest care in copying the words of God. Christ himself probably used the Septuagint which was available during his time. No one gave a hint that anything was seriously wrong at that time.
The church after the fourth century was not so careful. The best thing they did was to establish the canon and separate the books that were universally accepted from those that were not.
By the time some major translations occurred and the printing press became available, the church had several schisms and scholars were not as careful in protecting against human error and we find the rate of errors increased significantly. The Jewish scholars would not have allowed the known errors to be printed as some Christian printers did in their race to be the first to print.
Conclusion. We also find some examples of deliberate changes. One study shows a difference of 6000 between the major works!
However, the good news is that the vast majority of these differences are punctuation, inclusion of vowel sounds, articles to make the sentence read better. They were not merely gross changes in facts. And many people have documented the known printing errors, so we have some idea of what is correct.
Since I am not a scholar, I can only go by the list of texts that other scholars mentioned. Sometimes I don't know what the problem is, only that there is a difference between major ancient manuscripts. Please note also, that some of the problems below may not exist today. They were identified as problems in the past with a translator's work. Even with all these problem there are not significant differences that would cause a great crisis in belief.
We will principally address those archaeological finds that shed light on the changes in the Bible text and on evidence related to controversy over the prophetic books of Daniel and Revelation.
All historical records from the third to the first century B.C. are silent in regards to the existence and role of King Belshazzar and mention only Nabonidus as the last Babylonian king. Only the prophet Daniel mentions him.
Many questioned Daniel for its accuracy and its claim to be a prophetic book written hundreds of years before the event
Since the prophecies of Daniel mentions the Greek empire it is assumed that they were not prophecies but written after the Greek invasion. Even Greek historians were silent in regards to Belshazzar and attributed an insignificant role to King Nebuchadnezzar. Queen Semiramis was credited with building Babylon
Archaeological discoveries in the nineteenth century of cuneiform tablets have discredited the Greek historians and verified the historical accuracy of Daniel 5.
These facts were only preserved in Babylonian records.
The book of Daniel was written by Daniel around the year 553 B.C. Scholars have refused to accept this fact (because of the accuracy of the prophecies) stating rather that the book was written after the fact, possibly during the time of the Maccabees in the second century B.C. because he could not have prophesied the events. There were several things that were disturbing to these scholars:
In Matthew 24: 15, Christ himself attests to the reliability of Daniel.
The identity of Beltshazzar has been a great puzzle. He was known only in the book of Daniel and in works that quoted Daniel. In addition, several ancient sources which listed the kings of Babylon ended with Nabonidus as the last king before Cyrus. Several explanations were given since it was not uncommon to give other names to the same people. But the majority of scholars claimed that this was an invention of the writer of Daniel and that the book was written in the second century B.C.
Nabonidus Chronicle. Then at the close of the nineteenth century cuneiform tablets were discovered which mentioned the name of Belshazzar. A text, now called the Nabonidus Chronicle, describes the capture of Babylon by Cyrus and mentions that Nabonidus was in Tema (in Arabia) for several years while his son remained in Babylon. They were father and son joint rulers. Beltshazzar was a crown prince entrusted with royal power during his father's stay in Arabia, but all legal documents continued to be dated under his father's name. Given the fact that all this information was lost to history and that even the Greek historians in the fifth and fourth century did not mention this fact, the book of Daniel must have been written by a contemporary of those times.
Once under scholarly derision, the book of Daniel Chapter 5 excels in certain facts, It uses the name Belshazzar, attributes royal power to him and recognizes that a dual rulership existed in the kingdom.
Since this information was lost by the time of the Hellenistic era only a writer or an eye witness from the Neo-babylonian times could have written it. One other information that was lost was the importance of Nebuchadnezzar as the builder of Babylon. Again scholars relied on the Greek historians who claimed the Nebuchadnezzar played an insignificant role in Babylonian history and that it was Queen Semiramis who built Babylon. Cuneiform evidence shows that Semiramis was a queen mother of an infant king of Assyria and not a queen of Babylon. We just cannot trust those Greek historians!
Still refusing to acknowledge the evidence, scholars who choose to believe the book was written in the second century, like one from Harvard states:
We shall presumably never know how our author learned that Belshazzar, mentioned only in Babylonian records ... was functioning as king when Cyrus took Babylon ... and that the new Babylon was a creation of Nebuchadnezzar ... as the excavations have proved".
He knew it because he was there, and the book is a detailed prophecy about the future written 300 years before the events.
It is clear that these supposedly impartial scholars refuse to acknowledge anything that might point to a prophecy given by God. Instead they continue to criticize and deliberately ignore facts that do not agree with their view. They would rather call these unexplained mysteries - not a revelation from God or a lucky guess by Daniel.
They reject stories such as Alexander meeting the high priest of Jerusalem as a myth, because it would point to the book of Daniel as a prophecy recognized by that great military leader.
So the evidence states that Daniel is a prophecy not history, because he writes about the rise and fall of empires hundreds of years before the event occurred.
Dead Sea Scrolls On Daniel
Archaeology reveals the fact that the scribes took great care in manually copying the text. The Dead Sea Scrolls written during the first century B.C./A.D. revealed that few errors crept in over time.
|Discovery||Location||Archaeology and the Bible||Text|
|Rosetta Stone||Rosetta, Egypt||A black basalt slab with ancient writing. It was the decree was of Ptolemy V in 196 BC in three different languages (Greek, Demotic, and Egyptian hieroglyphics). It allowed us to interpret the Egyptian language and confirm some Bible history|
|Elephantine Papyri||Elephantine||Letters from Jewish exiles|
|Nash Papyrus||Cairo||Contains the ten Commandments and the Shema. Before the Dead Sea Scrolls it was the oldest bible manuscript. Dated to 200 BC|
|Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS)||Qumran||In 1947 a Bedouin shepherd boy found large jars with scrolls in them. They were the oldest copies of parts of all the Old Testament books except Esther. There are 175-200 scrolls written around 300BC-70AD|
|Black Stele of Hammurabi||Susa||Found in 1902 made about 1780 BC. Elamites carried it to Susa in 1157 B.C. when they defeated Babylon. It contained the written laws of Hammurabi and proves that writing existed before the time of Moses|
|Mari Tablets||Euphrates River||20,000 tablets dating to 1800 BC found in 1933. Records of King Zimri-Lim which mention the city of Nahor and the nomadic "Habiru" people (Hebrews) and mentions customs of those times||Genesis 11: 24|
|Amarna Tablets||Tell el-Amarna, Egypt along the Nile||About 300 tablets found in 1887 dated to about 1400 BC. Correspondence to Amenhotep IV from a Canaanite king named Abdi-Heba for help against an invading "Habiru" or "Apiru". Jerusalem is mentioned as Urusalim. This may confirm the exodus and conquest by Joshua||Joshua|
|Nuzi Tablets||Euphrates River||Thousands of tablets dating to 1500 BC which mention many bible customs such as birthright sales, household idols and eldest servant inherit your wealth if you were childless||Genesis 25: 31; 31: 19; 15: 2|
|House of David Inscription||Tel Dan||Scholars doubted that David lived. A stone tablet discovered in northern Israel in 1993 commemorates the defeat of Baasha, king of Israel, by Asa of "the House of David." It is the first mention outside the Bible of David||1 Kings 15|
|Sennacherib's Prism||Nineveh||A six-sided prism with Sennacherib's account of his siege of Jerusalem in 701BC. It mentions the fact that Hezekiah did not submit to him||2 Kings 19. Isaiah 36-39|
|Sargon's Palace||Khorsabad, Iraq||Scholars claimed that Assyrian King Sargon never existed until they found his palace. The capture of Ashdod was written on the walls and in the bible||Isaiah 20|
|Ashurbanipal's Library||Nineveh||22,000 tablets|
|The Atra-hasis Epic||The Mesopotamian creation story. Man was created from clay||Genesis|
|The Enuma Elish||The Babylonian creation story||Genesis|
|The Epic of Gilgamesh||Written on 12 clay tablets 2750 BC. Tablet 11 has a flood story||Genesis 8-11|
|Sumerian King List||Nippur |
|Mentions the flood and verifies that the average age before and after the flood were very different. The confusion of languages and the destruction of a temple tower. "Then Enki ... Changed the speech in their mouths, brought contention into it, into the speech of man that had been one"|
|Babylonian Chronicles |
|Ur, Babylon||Found in 1881, 4 tablets translated in 1956. The rise of the Babylonian Empire and King Nebuchadnezzar including the fall of Assyria, Egypt and Judah in the Battle of Carchemish. The capture of Jerusalem on 16 March 598 BC||Jeremiah 46: 2; 2 Kings 24: 7-17, Daniel|
|Nebuchadnezzar Chronicle||A Babylonian account of the siege of Jerusalem in 597 B.C., the appointment of Zedekiah as ruler of Judah, and the Jews' exile||2 Kings 24|
|Nabonidus Chronicle||Found in 1881. Skeptics used to say that Daniel was a lie written after the events and that Belshazzar was a fable because Nabonidus was the last king of Babylon until they found this cunieform tablet. It identifies Belshazzar as the son of Nabonidus who ruled Babylon for his father||Daniel 5: 29-30|
|Cyrus Cylinder |
|Babylon||Found in 1879. The fall of Babylon and the return of the Jews to Jerusalem||Ezra 1:1-3|
|130,000 Assyrian cuneiform tablets in the British Museum||Babylon||July 2007, a small clay tablet from the collection is a receipt for 1.5 minas of gold paid to the temple.
It identifies Nabu-sharrussu-ukin, as "the chief eunuch" of Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon.
Nebo-Sarsekim, according to Jeremiah, was Nebuchadnezzar II's "chief officer" who was with him at the siege of Jerusalem in 587 BC
|Jeremiah 39: 3|
|The Black Obelisk of Shamaneser||Nimrud||A monument found in the palace at Nimrud shows Assyria's King Shalmaneser III receiving tribute from kings including Jehu, King of Israel||2 Kings 9-10|
|Hittite Empire||Boghaz-Koy |
|Skeptics said that the Hittites never existed and the bible reference is a fable until they found this city and five temples in 1906||Genesis 15|
|Ebla Tablets |
|Tel Mardikh, Syria (Aleppo)||In 1975 tablets were discovered written in an unknown language. They were dated to before Abraham (2400 BC). It mentions creation from nothing close to Genesis. It lists the cities of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim and Zoar which critics claimed were fables. It mentions Ur in the territory of Haran, Megiddo, Canaan and Salem. They even claimed that writing did not exist at the time of Moses. It mentions Abraham and Ishmael, Esau, Birsha, David, Peleg, Haran, Terah, Nahor||Genesis 11-12, 14: 2|
|Moabite Stone |
|An inscribed basalt monument erected by Mesha, king of Moab, tells of the revolt of the Moabites after the death of King Ahab of Israel.||2 Kings 3|
|Merneptah Stela |
|Egypt, Thebes||Discovered in 1896 in Merneptah's mortuary temple in Thebes (1200 BC). Earliest mention of Israel outside the Bible, "Israel is laid waste, its seed is not."||Genesis 32: 28|
|Rock of Behistun||Kermanshah||Two inscriptions on rocks with the names of Darius and Xerxes||Esther|
|Pilate Inscription||Caesarea||A limestone slab that identifies Pontius Pilate as the governor of Judea||Luke 23|
Babylonian cuneiform writing is now called Akkadian language.
A stela or stele is an upright pillar bearing an inscription.
|Isaiah 9||Jews||A king who is a light to the Gentiles|
|Isaiah 53||Jews||Human Jesus who was an obedient Servant|
|Matthew||Jews||The suffering Messiah who justifies the nations|
|Mark||Gentile Romans||Human Jesus who was an obedient Servant|
|Luke||Gentile Greek||Savior of all mankind|
|John||Those facing false teachings||The deity of Christ|
|I Corinthians 15: 1-11||Greek Christians facing heresy||The resurrected Christ|
|Passover Seder||The suffering on the cross|
|The Campsites around the Sanctuary||How the tribes treated Jesus in His final seven days|
|Sanctuary and Offering||The work and sacrifice of Jesus|
|The Feasts||The Gospel schedule|
Through the gift of knowledge, the writer of teachinghearts recognizes other accounts of the Gospel in the Old Testament. These and many Messianic prophecies are summarized in this lesson.
Answers To Critics
The Bible said the following:
The God Hung the world on nothing (Job 26: 7). This is a concept grasped only in the last 2 centuries.
The earth was a circle. It is He that sits upon the circle of the earth (Isaiah 40: 22)
» Bible Science. In 2008, through the gift of knowledge this website uncovered information about basic science in the Old Testament written 3500 years ago that modern science has only discovered in the late nineteenth century. The Torah contains the first template of the Periodic Table and contains a model for particle physics that is superior to the standard model. Also, within the strange process of DNA replication are a set of events that occurred on the day of the crucifixion when God recreated us. Modeled everywhere in microscopic nature that was inaccessible to ancient man are many laws and designs that are written in the Bible, pointing to the existence of a being superior to us who created our systems.
The Love Of God - Compassion
While other gods were fighting among themselves and plotting treason and taking delight in putting fear and terror in humanity and subjecting humanity to slavery and ridicule, Jesus Christ came in the form of a poor servant, born in the feeding trough of a barn. He became the model of leadership by servanthood, not by grandeur and self exaltation.
While other gods required you to work and suffer and to appease them. God asks you to hold His hand and trust him. While others took, He gave. While others hated, He loved. While others threatened with the power of death, He came with life and hope. He gave His life for us.
He became just like we were. He took His stand with us. Most of His life He was hungry and homeless, subjected to ridicule. The Bible suggests the He was not handsome - He did this so that you would not be attracted to Him for His looks. People were already attracted to Him because of what He could do. His whole life He was subjected to humiliation because of His illegitimate birth. He was a bastard child.
He was gentle. 'A bruised reed He would not break'.
He was touched with the feeling of our infirmities. He empathized with us.
He cried at the death of Lazarus. He sympathizes with us.
He is not ashamed to call us His brothers. He became human.
He suffered and died while we hated Him, spit on Him, laughed at Him. All for us. He loved us. He loved His enemies.
"Father forgive them", were His dying words.
He became a King without a territory.
A God without the power.
A Priest who was the sacrifice.
A Judge who offers mercy and forgiveness, not condemnation.
He turned upside down every notion we have about power and leadership and self worth.
This truly was a different God, a remarkable God, a magnificent God. A compassionate God.
James says, The Lord is full of compassion and is merciful. (James 5: 11)
He could empathize with the worst of our feelings and deprivation because He was a poor, bastard child, born in a barn, in a feeding trough among the smelly animals. He grew up in the worst part of town on the wrong side of the tracks. Not handsome, homeless, penniless, ridiculed, persecuted, familiar with hunger, unable to fight back, His own brothers called Him crazy. At death, abandoned by the world and His friends, He was abandoned by God Himself.
Do you think He understands the worst of your feelings, your pain, your suffering? He does!
There is no other religion in which God comes down, reaches down to his people. The Bible proves that there is more to it than other books because of its prophecies.
We can be assured that there have been no changes to critical doctrine that have resulted from any attempts to reconstruct the texts or to make deliberate changes. It is to our credit that we can spot these changes and to document variations in readings so that the reader can make an informed decision. The bottom line is that there is no critical change in meaning that would cause us to throw away everything in favor of no belief. God is one. He loves us. He died for us. He is coming back. This is the message.
|Be diligent [study] to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. (2 Timothy 2: 15)||Time: 120 minutes
Print: 31 pages
Updated : October 2002. March 2008
Author: Laverna Patterson. Editor: Patterson (March 2008)
Credits: The information was compiled from various sources.
New And Old Testament Changes. URL: http://www.biblebelievers.com/williams_d1.html
Magic Marker: Changes to the Bible. URL: http://av1611.com/kjbp/charts/themagicmarker.html
See the Judaism links for information on Jewish writings
See the bible links for information on ancient translations